ESN and eGovernment

ESN and eGovernment


This seminar evaluates the contribution of eGovernment to economic objectives and assesses its impact on engaging people in policy making and improving policy outcomes.


1.0 e-Government can help achieve better outcomes in major policy areas. Identify as many of these policy areas as possible and outline how social media can be implemented to this end.

  • Health Policy << Automated online schedule and give health advice online which can possibly decrease the demand on local GP’s and hospitals
  • Fiscal Policy << Benefits and unemployment benefits information centralised on an online system
  • Environmental Policy << Information regarding carbon footprint and business obligations schedule and information of toxic material dumps
  • Taxation Policy << Information regarding tax individuals or businesses which help cut costs
  • Social Policy << Education and benefits, other information relating to local sports and activities and community awareness.
  • Local Government << mostly information relating to local policy and local politics
  • Foreign Policy << support for petitions and foreign affairs, immigration rules and particular information for foreign
  • Education Policy << regarding standardisation of the education system, exams and legal framework on certification.

2.0 – Identify and address as many disadvantages of eGovernment as possible.

  • Internet Access availability – as with any complex system, servers and internet connections can be down (power, maintenance, cyber-warfare).
  • Data protection – information might be easily available for internal staff that should not have access to this information.
  • Privacy – centralised data centres storing health, education, taxation, criminal information about an individual.
  • Loss of information – due to hardware faults, viruses, hackers, accidents.
  • Fraud – Personal identity theft, internal miss inputing of data.
  • Basic IT / literacy skills – some individuals do not have the skills to access a website such as and might not even be able to read the information presented to them.No interpersonal interaction – No customer service representative to lease with your personal issues and not only one person on your case.
  • Cost of eGov design – 
  • Issues of transparency, accountability – 
  • Cyber Warfare – 
  • Hidden Agendas – 

3.0 – The Sandbox is a space for the Digital Communications team of the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills. Ascertain the site’s role and functionality and comment on the use of social media to engage people in policymaking, including how-to guides and methodologies.


Provide brief answers for each of the above questions.

 Further reading


Social Media and Public Sector week 5 lecture

Social media & public sector

  • Initial suspicion towards SM.
  • Lack of, or anecdotal only, evidence.
  • Fear that employees may misrepresent their organisations or disclose sensitive information.
  • According to Socitm survey many councils take a cautious view of social media, with some 90% restricting access in some way and with 67% having a total ban on use.
  • Need to establish organisational policy and protocols for SM use by employees and  managing the organisation’s reputation online.


  • It comprises all forms of electronically supported learning and teaching and is essentially the computer and network-enabled transfer of skills and knowledge.
  • E-learning applications and processes include Web-based learning, computer-based learning, virtual education opportunities and digital collaboration. Content is delivered via the Internet, intranet/extranet, audio or video tape, satellite TV, and CD-ROM.

eLearning 2.0

  • E-learning 2.0 places increased emphasis on social learning and use of social software and virtual worlds.
  • AKA Long Tail Learning
  • It assumes that knowledge is socially constructed, so learning takes place through conversations about content and systematic interaction about problems and actions.
  • Advocates of social learning claim that one of the best ways to learn something is to teach it to others.
  • Social networks have been used to foster online learning communities around various subjects.

Online learning communities

  • Online learning communities address their members’ learning needs by facilitating peer-to-peer learning. People work as a community to achieve a shared learning objective through social networking.
  • Learning objectives may be proposed by the community owner or may arise out of discussions between participants that reflect personal interests.

Categories of OLC ( Online learning community )

According to contact

e-learning communities
(groups interact and connect solely via technology)

blended learning communities
(face-to-face meetings as well as online meetings)

According to relationship

  • knowledge-based
  • practice-based << as in a work environment
  • task-based << usually in work environment as well, a task which needs to be fulfilled and a course is not required but people inside the business will help

According to focus

  • personal aspects << if you are interested in something but you want to learn more
  • process << its a process, a step towards something else which will help me on another thing
  • technology.

Enabling technologies 

  • Synchronous (e.g. instant messaging) < real time response (ask reply, ask reply)
  • Asynchronous
  • (e.g. message boards, Internet forums) << takes a bit longer to reply
  • Blogs <<
  • Wikis
  • Course management tools
  • (e.g. Blackboard, Moodle,  Lectureshare)
  • Social learning (e.g. Babbel, ConnectYard)
  • Social sharing (e.g. and Flickr)


Open Source Course Management System

1113566 registered users (Fri, Oct 21st 2011)

“Activity modules
(such as forums,
databases and wikis)
to build collaborative
communities of learning
around their subject
matter [..] while others
prefer to use Moodle
as a way to deliver
content to students
and assess learning
using assignments
or quizzes.”


  • Also called Health Informatics
  • E- health  is a relatively recent term for healthcare practice supported by electronic processes and communication,
  • Its broad definition covers electronic/digital processes in health
  • A narrower definition covers aspects of healthcare practice using the Internet.

eHealth range of services  

  • Electronic health records: communication of patient data between different healthcare professionals; <<how the NHS stores peoples personal data which is centralised.
  • Telemedicine: treatments at a distance;
  • Consumer health informatics: use of electronic resources on medical topics by healthy individuals or patients;
  • Health knowledge management: overview of latest medical journals, best practice guidelines, epidemiological tracking <<HKM is info abt health for practitioners
  • Virtual healthcare teams: healthcare professionals collaborating/sharing information on patients; << mostly specialised drs.
  • M – health: health services through mobile devices;  << via smart phones and other access
  • Grid medical research: powerful computing and data management capabilities to handle large amounts of heterogeneous data. <<grid is a large number of computers interconnected so that the processing power is increased.
  • Healthcare Information Systems: software solutions for appointment scheduling, patient data management, etc. << NHS direct and other services online

Patient Opinion

Patient feedback for improving UK health services. << this helps research information about the quality of GPs and Dr.s in the UK to give your feedback, it is also linked with eGov.

eHealth Forum
it is online communities where Dr.s and other specialists awser question, but an issue of these communities is that its not regulated and you don’t know the advice with you are getting.

NHS Choices
the NHS online expansion, which includes blogs and articles.

Web 2.0 NHS portal & enabling technologies

Medical Knowledge Management, targeted interactive marketing, education, content, and medical research solutions


Digital interactions between a government and citizens, government and businesses, government and employees, and between government and governments/agencies.

e-Government delivery models (Jeong, 2007)

  • G2C (Government to Citizens)
  • G2B (Government to Businesses)
  • G2E (Government to Employees)
  • G2G (Government to Governments)
  • C2G (Citizens to Governments)


  • Government-to-Citizen is the communication link between a government and private individuals or residents.
  • G2C communication most often refers to that which takes place through Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs)
  • The G2C model applies the strategy of Customer Relationship Management (CRM) with business concept. << it tried to help to create a relationship between Gov to consumer
  • By managing their customer (citizen) relationship, the business (government) can provide the needed products and services fulfil the needs from customer (citizen).

Singapore’s e-citizen Portal << One of the best as it had a enterprise social network aspect and good web design


Government-to-Business is the online non-commercial interaction between local and central government and the commercial business sector.

G2B provides businesses information and advice on e-business ‘best practices’.

G2B transactions include various services exchanged between government and the business community, including dissemination of policies, memos, rules and regulations.

Business services offered include obtaining current business information, downloading application forms, renewing licenses, registering businesses, obtaining permits, and payment of taxes.

Department for Business, Innovation and Skills (BIS)


Government-to-Government is the online non-commercial interaction between Government organisations, departments, and authorities and other Government organisations, departments, and authorities.

G2G systems cab be:

Internal facing – joining up a single governments departments, agencies, organisations and authorities.
Example is the integration aspect of Government Gateway and UK NHS Connecting for Health Data SPINE

External facing – joining up multiple governments IS systems . Example is the integration aspect of the Schengen Information System (SIS), developed to meet the requirements of the Schengen Agreement.


Government-to-employees is the online interactions through communication tools between government units and their employees.

It streamlines internal processes, improves collaboration, knowledge sharing and staff productivity.

It enables employee access to information in regard to compensation and benefit policies, training and learning opportunities and civil rights laws.

G2E services also include software for maintaining personnel information and records of employees.

Setting up a context  

Elements of eGovernment (a)* 

  • Easier access – making it easier for citizens and businesses to find, access and interact with government services. <<collect is using the web and decrease handling costs for gov.
  • Service innovation – making government services more responsive to the needs of individuals and improving the quality of service outcomes. << same thing but user does most of leg work
  • Policy innovation – creating new ways for government to understand unmet needs and develop and implement policy initiatives to address priority problems in a timely and efficient manner << by having all information centralised and feedback you are able to react with the information
  • Better engagement – improving the interactions between government and its many agencies and their citizen, community and business stakeholders.  <<less bureaucracy

Elements of eGovernment (b)*  

  • Better coordination – enhancing the way processes interoperate within government and the way information is used and shared across government agencies. <<with less people involved and all information placed online, which decreases costs and increase efficiency, draw back is people who are unable to use technological services.
  • Shared information – enhancing the way data and information is used to provide an evidence base for policy and service responses and also to enable increased use of public sector information by citizens and businesses to boost innovation and engagement in matters of public interest.
  • Efficient operations – streamlining government operations to reduce duplication and waste and promote reuse and sharing of ICT assets to enable redirection of funds from ‘back room’ activities to the front line of service delivery.

Key questions*

  • Who owns these new social networks and in whose interests are they being operated? <<GOV and that Data protection is essential
  • If key public services are provided using social networking services (e.g. advice to parents, tax guidance), to what extent should government seek to control the services upon which it relies? << who controls the information and who has access and who owns the information
  • What are the rules for privacy, security, trust and consent? <<the consent has to be understood
  • How does the government protect the authority of its information while allowing the conversations and communities to grow and flourish? <<how does the GOV separate information which is private and what is public
  • How can a government set clear measures and metrics to gage the success of fairly new and innovative practices and projects? <<
  • How will social media and Web 2.0 continue to change existing government practices and cultures?


  • Mobile government  is the extension of eGovernment to mobile platforms.

Its benefits include:

  • cost reduction
  • efficiency
  • transformation/modernization of public sector organizations
  • added convenience and flexibility
  • better services to the citizens
  • ability to reach a larger number of people

mGovernment problems 

need development of wireless and mobile networks and related infrastructure, as well as software

mobile phone numbers and devices are relatively easily to hack while wireless networks are vulnerable as they use public airwaves to send signals

overcoming mistrust about misuse of personal data sold to third parties

Public participation
need for user-friendly citizen-oriented services and easy access to mGovernment information in alternative forms

Legal Issues
many countries have not yet adopted legislation for data and information practices

Compatibility and Interoperability
need to overcome technical difficulties by using open not proprietary standards.


  • ESN adoption by the private sector has led to the transformation of organisational structures and the broadening of corporate ecosystems.
  • ESN adoption in the public sector is following, by presenting new opportunities, especially in the areas of health, education and governance.
  • Advantages include cost-effectiveness, agility, transparency, end-user empowering, citizen engagement and innovation.
  • And disadvantages?

Further reading

  • Charlton J (2011) Public sector use of Social Media takes off
  • Learning Sites
  • Della Mea V (2001). What is e-Health (2): The death of telemedicine?
  • eHealth,eLearning,eGov:Recommendations from the eUSER Project

Egov Monitor

Lecture by Fefie Dotsika professor at The university of Westminster

Week 4 ESN Business Applications seminar

ESN Business Applications


The business adoption of ESN is evolving with particular business sectors and functions being amongst the early adopters, which is not dis-similar to the early adoption of websites and e-commerce.

This session will familiarise students with the the advice being given to business who are interested in adopting ESN, and the need to vet this information for credibility, quality, and value.


  1. Locate three internet sites offering advice to  SME’s (small media enterprise) in how to adopt ESN into their business activities.

Business Link is government’s online resource for businesses.

It contains essential information, support and services for  businesses – whether you work for a large organisation or are on your way to starting up.


Simple to use, up to date and practical, Business Link is the first place to go to find guidance on regulations and to access government services. It also has a number of useful online tools, calculators, and best practice case studies; and provides access to funding options, as well as wider support.

(taken from website)

It has a spesific section about Web 2.0 and how business should use and the legal obligations of using such a system, it establishes best practises found here //

on that website they also talk about:

How Web 2.0 can be used for business

” Customers have never had so many choices to buy online. So, to help ensure your customers keep coming back, you should try to generate an online buzz about your brand and products or services. Engaging directly with your target audience will help you do this.

Think about what your customers are looking for when they visit your website. Could they benefit from product reviews or advice from previous customers? What can you offer beyond simply selling products or providing information?

Build an online community

Think about how you can use Web 2.0 tools to enhance your relationship with your customers and build a community around your brand. For example, if your business sells tools and hardware, you might consider posting video tutorials showing how to carry out common DIY jobs. You could also have an online forum to let other users of your site share their own advice and tips.

This would encourage people to return to your site after making a purchase and should also attract new visitors. The more visitors you have, the more likely you are to sell. So, even if you can’t see an immediate benefit, improving your customers’ web experience will help your business in the long term. ”

– – –

wired is an online technology news website and has many blogs devolted to internet issues, although they do not have a direct HOW-TO on web 2.0 they have many articles about the dilemas web 2.0 has and a lot of relevant information

2. Identify the essential advice and actions being proposed.

Protect your brand

It’s important to consider monitoring user comments. Depending on your business, you may find that some users post inappropriate comments. This could include:

  • Inappropriate language – if your customers are likely to be sensitive to certain language, make sure you have a system for monitoring all new posts before they go live.
  • Libellous material – you may be held responsible for any user comments on your site that insult or libel someone. Make sure you monitor what users are saying.
  • Damaging comments – while customer opinion can be useful, you don’t want to have too many negative comments about your business. If you find this is the case, look into the reasons behind the comments and try to put things right.

Legal implications and best practice when using social media

Make sure you have the following on your site:

  • a privacy policy – letting users know how their personal details will be used
  • a disclaimer – setting out the limits of your legal liability
  • terms and conditions – letting users know what they can expect from the site

Web 2.0: a guide for business

What is Web 2.0?

Web 2.0 does not refer to a particular technology but to a general trend. There is no checklist to decide what Web 2.0 is and whether you can apply it to your business, but there are several features that tend to distinguish it.

It may be helpful to consider integrating some of the following into your website:

  • User-generated content – this is the ability for your customers to interact with your business online, eg by posting information, comments, or product ratings and reviews to your website. This adds real value for other customers and provides you with customer insight and content that is unique to your website. Business blogs are another example of how you can communicate directly with your customers, canvass opinion, and advertise new products or services – see the page in this guide on Web 2.0 tools.
  • Collaboration – nearly all Web 2.0 applications are community centred, so users can share experiences and knowledge. Increasingly the web is being used for ‘open innovation’ or e-collaboration, where organisations are opening up areas of their business to the online community. In doing so, business is using the online resources and expertise available to solve problems or create innovative products or services. Find out about e-collaboration on the open innovation website.
  • Online networking and social media – the ability for people to find others with similar interests and express themselves to a community of like-minded people – eg social networking sites like Facebook, MySpace and Twitter. Business networking sites such as LinkedIn can also be used to develop professional networks, to enhance career or recruitment options or simply to keep in touch with former colleagues and contacts. See our guide on online networking.
  • Personalisation – the facility to customise the way you view or interact with websites. For example, setting your local area so you get information based on your location such as the news or weather. Web applications or ‘web apps’ are also growing in popularity, giving users applications they can add to websites or mobile devices like a smart phone – providing personalised web experiences.

Common to all of these is the ability for users to add and edit content – contributing online using different types of technology and interactive media, and creating more personalised web experiences.


Establishing the credibility of the advice being given:

  • a. quality of source;
  • b. evidence that the advice/suggestions work;
  • c. the standing of the author;
  • d. the standing of the internet site.


  • Web addresses for the three sites (in Harvard referencing style);
  • Brief outline of the advice being given;
  • Summary of your evidence for the credibility of the information located (as indicated in Task 3).

              Further reading

See lecture slides

Week 4: ESN Business Applications lecture

ESN & Business Applications

Types of Business Use

Examples of Business Use

  • Internal
  • External
  • Issues, Obstacles, Benefits

Social as the Dominant Global Trend

Enterprise 2.0

  • Social Software and Web 2.0 for the Enterprise – McAfee 06

Formed of:

  • “rich, reusable information ecologies in our organizations ala the Web”, and
  • “a workable framework for co-developed situational software based on social software platforms that can readily adapt to what users need at a given point in time.
Hinhcliffe 06


Enterprise 2.0

derived from Web 2.0

  • covering the introduction and implementation of social software within the enterprise
  • the social and organizational changes related to its use.

reflecting  a coalescing of Web 2.0

  • recognition of enterprise level potential
  • the growing economic value/power of the web
  • interest & acquisition from big players

Also referred to as Enterprise Web 2.0 

  • covering the introduction and implementation of Web 2.0 technologies within the enterprise
  •  including those other than social software such a

Rich Internet Applications (RIA)

Software as as Service (SaaS)

and Web as a Platform (WaaP).

Three Waves of E2.0


Social Software/Web 2.0

Socially driven

from the bottom-up rather than the typically top-down driven IT

Development of Web 2.0 to E2.0

Acquisition of developers and products by big players

Implications for continued development and innovation

Expertise Levels

Linking to existing systems, experiences and knowledge of system admin and support

Control and Management

How does Web 2.0 and E2.0 fit into strategic planning processes

Noting web 2.0 geared to operational and tactical solutions

Business Use by Business Function



Public Relations




Collaborative Work


Gordon, 2009, Social Media Today Survey


Social Media use by Business Function 

Twitter features used

Competing for Customers

Social Media in Large Organisations

Networks & Tools currently used

Networks & Tools being considered

Organisational attitudes to Social Media 

Business Function most likely to adopt Social Media

Business Application of Twitter

Trends and Patterns

“As organisations look to the future, the same trend emerges as seen in the general social media and Twitter responses:

a shift toward more customer communications and, in particular toward prospecting”


Gordon, 2009, Social Media Today Survey




Business Applications of Social Networks

Business Applications of Social Networks

“Human interaction is still human interaction, and what it takes to be successful with it has not changed

What has changed is the places it happens”


Brian Solis of Futureworks


Business Applications of Social Networks

“Social media tools help you find conversations that can give you insight into what individuals in your market are saying about your product.

This can give you the opportunity to enagage people on their terms, not as a sales person, but as a resource, and then get the because of it”

Brian Solis of Futureworks


The Business Context – Internal Use


used by CEOs to speak to their organisation

Microsoft (Scoble & Isreal, 2006)

Oracle et al


Mapa International

Standardising operating practice

Sharing and communicating information

Social Media

BDO Stoy Hayward LLP

Enhancing communication

Building a common brand and identity for a global collection of partnerships

The Business Context – External Use


Campaign in reaction to the suggestion of charging interest on student overdrafts

Physical protest outside HSBC HQ

Facebook protest group

Cadburys Wispa bar

Campaign for its return

Petition across Facebook, Bebo, MySpace


Brand development with Generation Y

In collaborating with YouTube

inviting amateur movie makers to create their own film spoof

The Business Context – External Use


Driving Christmas interest and traffic to its website

Use of Blogs and Facebook

12,000 blog visits run-up Christmas 07

35, 000 blog page views

2,500 click-through to website

At a cost-per-view less than 50p (UK)


Harnessing self organising user groups

Testing future products

Drawing ideas for future products

E2.0 Obstacles 

1) There are already numerous communication and collaboration technologies that exist in most businesses today.

2) Enterprise social software has had to mature and gain the capabilities that enterprises require that aren’t usually present in consumer social media.

E2.0 Obstacles  [con]

3) Creating effective social architectures isn’t the core competency of most IT departments or their users.

4), not the least of these obstacles is that enterprises usually adopt technology much more slowly than individual consumers or the overall marketplace.

Dion Hinchcliffe, 2011, //

Issues and Implications

Trust and Confidence

Will it last, continue development, is it secure

Centred on around small entities

start up

Arrival  of the Big players


Acquisition of Web 2.0 technology/services

e.g. Google, Yahoo, Microsoft,News International

Strategic Direction

Microsoft, BEA Systems, Intel, Oracle, Nokia, IBM

Organisations Systems Development and Support

Ownership, responsibility, etc

Business Benefits and Value?

Still emerging

Mostly soft not quantifiable at this stage

Reflects ongoing hang-up of ROI and cost justification of IT

Issue of piggy-backing existing technologies and IT infrastructure

The Release of Knowledge

Encouraging sharing


Leveraging tacit knowledge

Difficulty in tangibliseing this gains/benefits

Changing Mindsets

Bottom developments

Enabling end-users

Enabling knowledge owners

Cultural issues


Enterprise 2.0 the Concept

Types of Business Use

Examples of Business Use



Issues, Obstacles, Benefits



McAfee, A., 2009, Enterprise 2.0, Harvard Business Press.

Gordon, J., 2010, The Coming Change in Social Media Business Applications, Social Media Today.

Hinchcliffe, D., 2007, More organisations shift to Web 2.0 while IT departments remain wary, [online] //, accessed 8th March 2007.

Patrick, K., 2008, Social Networking/Social Media in a Business Context: Consequences, Concerns, Benefits? in Remenyi, Dan, (ed) Proceedings of the ICICKM 2008: International Conference on Intellectual Capital, Knowledge Management and Organisational Learning, New York Institute of Technology, USA, October 2008, ISBN 978-906638-17-7.

Patrick, K., 2007, Social Software beget Web 2.0 beget Enterprise 2.0 beget Business Value? in Remenyi, Dan, (ed) Proceedings of the ICICKM 2007: International Conference on Intellectual Capital, Knowledge Management and Organisational Learning, University of Stellenbosch Business School, Cape Town, South Africa, October 2007, ISBN 978-1-905305-60-5.

Social Media yes but for ……..!